Saturday, March 28, 2015

Archeological Evidence for a Cayce Reading about Ancient Egypt


Archeological Evidence for a Cayce Reading about Ancient Egypt

By Donald B. Carroll


Here it may be well that there be given a concept of what is meant by the journey, or what journey is meant. As indicated, it, the globe within the pyramid without, was four forty and four cubits (twenty-seven and one-half inches was a cubit then, or a mir [?] then). Reading 281-25


This one brief statement in the readings has the potential for far reaching ramifications for the Philosophies in Ancient Egypt and the broader information found in the Edgar Cayce readings.  This stated unit of ancient Egyptian measurement of 27 ½ inches, so simple, so straight forward, so unassuming, may well represent a core representative symbol towards a civilizations goal to raise one’s consciousness and embody the bringing together Heaven and Earth in the venture. 


One of the objectives of the A.R.E. is to research the readings and seek evidence of the information found in them.  There has been much success in this arena and in the case of the readings about Egypt a long patient, persistent investigation that still continues to this end.  This is one such investigation that is bearing fruit.  So, let me begin laying out the framework of this evidence.


Today Egyptology recognizes the general use of two different Egyptian cubits as units of linear measurement in the civilization of ancient Egypt.  They are the “Royal Cubit” (Nesu meh) of 20.61 inches (52.35 cm) and the “Little Cubit” (Netches meh) of 17.5 inches (44.45 cm). It is generally considered that the royal cubit was used in the construction of temples and monuments.  An example of this is the Great Pyramid of Giza that, when measured by this system, has a height of 280 royal cubits and a side width of 440 royal cubits. 


What is presented here is the evidence for the possibility that a different unit of measurement, a different length cubit, may have been used in the construction of pyramids. A unit of measurement of approximately 27.5 inches (69.85 cm). This consideration is based upon the purpose of pyramids themselves and an identification of a “third” Egyptian cubit, considered a non-standard cubit. Evidence of this “third” cubit consists of physical discoveries of it and mention of it, in different forms, in the hieroglyphs.    How this “third” cubit is named in the hieroglyphs also ties into such a purpose of the pyramids and an early deity of ancient Egypt whose name and purpose links to the name of this third cubit and the pyramids. 


Further the use of such a proposed unit of measurement, at least for the Great Pyramid, is given support by the research of Egyptologist, Sir Flinders Petrie. 


“The predominance of mason’s measures in the Great Pyramid has suggested that a variety of measures were in use, some of which do not seem to be an even number of digits.”   Flinders Petrie, Measures and Weights (London: Methuen & Company Ltd.1934), p.7

“So there is evidence for independent standards which are not formed from digits.  This may seem unsatisfactory to anyone expecting a cut-and-dried result; but the subject is new, and it can only grow by fresh facts which agree with what is already explored.”    Flinders Petrie, Measures and Weights (London: Methuen & Company Ltd.1934), p.8


Since that introduction from famed Egyptologist Flinders Petrie commenting of a variety of measurements used in the Great Pyramid construction, let this continue with the defined purpose of pyramids.  Dr. Mark Lehner an Egyptologist and considered one of the world’s experts on Egyptian pyramids has written that;

“…the pyramid was designed to be a cosmic engine… The mechanics of the pyramid as a cosmic engine depended on the Egyptian concept of a person and the distinct phases of life and death, called kheperu.  These ‘transformations’ continued when the ka, the ba, and the body, which had become separated at  death, interacted in the final transformation – becoming an akh, a glorified being of light, effective in the afterlife.”  The pyramid was an instrument that enabled this alchemy to take place… (The Complete Pyramids by Mark Lehner, Thames and Hudson 2008 p.20)


“Joining the stars, the king becomes an akh.  Akh is often translated as ‘spirit’ or ‘spirit state’.  It derives from the term for ‘radiant light’.

The reunion of the ba and ka is effected by the burial ritual, creating the final transformation of the deceased as an akh.  As a member of the starry sky,”

The Complete Pyramids by Mark Lehner 2008 p.24


Such important cosmic mechanics and their goal should be expected to translate into the actual construction mechanics of a pyramid. 


First, the celestial, the cosmic mechanics of the pyramid will be examined.  As noted the pyramids physical “engine” purpose was to unite the Ka and the Ba of the Egyptian soul to become an Akh (alternatively an aakhu or khu) to live eternally with the imperishable stars of the Northern skies.  This engines’ spiritual fuel appears to have ties to one of their oldest deities. The ancient Egyptians recognized a pre-dynastic deity whose purpose was to perform similarly this function.  The deity’s name was Nehebu-Kau, (also spelt Nehebkau and Neheb Ka)


Nehebkau (Nehebu-Kau, Nehebkhau), 'He Who Unites the Kas', was a benevolent snake god who the Egyptians believed was one of the original primeval gods. 

He was depicted in the form of a snake with arms and legs, occasionally with wings. He is sometimes shown holding containers of food in his hands, in offering to the deceased. Less often, he is shown as a two headed snake, with a head at each end of the reptilian body.


His name comes from the ancient Egyptian word for 'yoke together' or 'unite', nhb



The goals of Nehebukau and the purpose of pyramids as defined by Dr. Lehner appear to be one and the same; with that in mind this proposal will move to the examination of the physical links that support this possibility.

 The proposed unit of measurement of approximately 27.5 inches (69.85 cm) has been found at ancient Egyptian sites.


… the non-standard measuring rods of 65-70 cm, which were discovered by Petrie at Kahun and Deshasha, and another similar rod from Lisht. Now it has long been considered that a measurement of between 65 and 77 cm could be equated with a unit known as the nbi, which is seldom mentioned in the Egyptian literature and was generally used to record the amount of work carried out in the cutting of dykes or the excavation of tombs. Gardiner conjectured that the nbi might be equal to 1 1/4 or 1 1/3 cubit,[3] and thus gave a name for the measurement of 1 1/4 cubit in the tomb of Tausret.

At this point, however, we have to contend with two recently-published alternative explanations for the nbi measure, both agreeing that the length should be 1 1/3 cubit or 70 cm in opposition to Elke Roik's proposed value of 65 cm, but differing in their interpretation as to the use of this measure. Following his survey of a number of Old and New Kingdom rock tombs, Naguib Victor maintains that the nbi had an architectural significance;[4] while Claire Simon believes that it was connected with the canon of proportion, and was used to determine the size of the grid squares in which the human figure was inserted.[5] The existence of a linear measure of about 1 1/3 cubit is in any case proven for the Middle Kingdom by the three rods from Kahun and Lisht, which vary in length between about 67 cm and 70 cm. These rods are clearly too long to answer to Roik's measure of 65 cm; and since each is divided into seven units, they cannot supply the required dyadic divisions.

... In addition, the twenty-two measurements provided by Naguib Victor as proof of the use of the 'rod-70' in a tomb of the Sixth Dynasty,…


3. A.H. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar (Oxford, 1957), 199.

4. N. Victor, GM 121 (1991), 101-110.

5. C. Simon, JEA 79 (1993), 157-177.


Review Article - Measurement in Ancient Egypt by John A.R. Legon

(Reproduced from Discussions in Egyptology 30 (1994), 87-100)

Elke Roik, Das Längenmaßsystem im alten Ägypten. Christian-Rosenkreutz-Verlag, Hamburg 1993. 407p, 298 x 210 mm, 106 fig. ISBN 3-929322, DM 129.


Though Mr. Legon disagrees as to the purpose of this non-standard cubit of 70 cm (1 1/3 royal cubits), his review of Dr. Roik’s articles does show that such a cubit exists ; discovered by Petrie and has subsequently been researched by Gardiner, Simon and Victor.  As can be seen from these above excerpts there is firm evidence of a cubit of approximately 27 .5 inches or 1 1/3 length of a Royal Cubit.  As for its’ name it appears to be nb, nbj, or nbi and its transliteration is debated, though Dr. Livio Stecchini, in his research believes it was called a nb or nebiu transliterating it as to yoke or unite essentially as half a carrying yoke. (A History of Measures, Part II by Dr. Livio Stecchini).   Such transliterations allow the prospect of this unit of measurement to be associated with the previous noted deity Nehebukau, who unites the ka ad t ba.   Dr. Stecchini also notes of a physical example of this cubit in the New York Metropolitan Museum.




(Personal photograph MMA Gallery 109)  “Egyptian measuring rod”

Period: Middle Kingdom

Dynasty: Dynasty 12–13

Date: ca. 1981–1640 B.C.

Geography: Country of Origin Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht North, Cemetery, MMA 1915–1916

Medium: Wood, zizyphus

Dimensions: l. 70.5 cm (27 3/4 in)

Credit Line: Rogers Fund, 1915

Accession Number:15.3.1128

Provenance: Excavated by the Egyptian Expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Acquired by the Museum in the division of finds. (Description by MMA)

It should be noted that MMA describes its length as 27 ¾” (70.5 cm)

The fact that both Flinders Petrie and the MMA expedition found examples of this 27 ½ inch cubit in the Lisht area of Egypt, relates it to the pyramids of Amenemhet I and Senusret I of the Middle Kingdom, more particularly to the North Side of el-Lisht, the Amenemhet I Pyramid.  This is an interesting note as that Amenemhat I, the first ruler of the 12th Dynasty was trying to revive the Old Kingdom style of pyramid complexes and their spiritual purpose.

“Picking up the pieces to resurrect the pyramid age: Amenemhut I incorporated fragments of Old Kingdom tombs and pyramid complexes in his own pyramid.”  The Complete Pyramids by Mark Lehner 2008 p.168

“Amenemhut I returned to the approximate size and form of the late Old Kingdom pyramid complex…Perhaps the most remarkable feature is the fact that it included fragments of relief-decorated blocks from Old Kingdom monuments – many from pyramid causeways and temples, including Khufu’s….We can only conclude that they were picked up at Saqqar and Giza and brought to Lisht to be incorporated into the pyramid for their spiritual efficacy.”  The Complete Pyramids by Mark Lehner 2008 p.168

This evidence infers the possibility of the use of a 70cm unit of measurement in the Old Kingdom pyramids. Then, as an example, if one uses it in the Great Pyramid, the results are a height of 210 such cubits and aside width of 330 such cubits.  Interestingly Egyptologists theorize that the Great Pyramid may have had 210 courses of blocks in its original condition.

The last piece of evidence in this proposal comes from a unit of measurement in the hieroglyphs.  It is the Aakhu Meh unit of measurement. (See E. A. Wallis Budge, An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Vol. 1 [New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1978], p.25).  Could this be another name for this 27.5 inch cubit?  It was noted earlier about the possible link between the nbj/nb measurement unit to Nehebukau, who unites the ka and the ba. When this union of the Egyptian soul occurs it becomes an Aakhu (akh or khu).  As this is the believed purpose for the pyramids, it seems appropriate that the name of the unit of measurement of this cosmic engine, called a pyramid, would be related to such purpose as has been defined by Dr. Lehner.  This seems to be the case.

In conclusion it can be seen there are multiple sources that support the possibility of a “third” cubit being used in the construction of pyramids.  These sources range from evidence that multiple units of measurements appeared to be used in at least the Great Pyramid, the identified purpose of pyramids, on to the Egyptian deity who had a similar purpose whose name links it to this third cubit identified in Lisht where it is known these pyramids were trying to emulate the Old Kingdom pyramids and their spiritual purpose, culminating with a cubit identified in the hieroglyphs, the aakhu meh, whose name includes the term for a radiant being of light, the final purpose of the cosmic engine known as a pyramid. This evidence makes a third cubit of 27.5” (70cm) worthy of consideration.

Even within the methodology of Egyptology, without the benefit of the Cayce readings, the evidence is clear, supportive, and compelling towards the use of a 27 ½ “cubit” in pyramid construction.

The difference with the use of the Cayce readings is not only the evidence it presents for information from a psychic, higher source, but the material the readings provide of the deeper meaning and purpose for this “cosmic engine” called a pyramid.  Rather than a tomb for the ascension of the soul to heaven, in was a place for initiates to bring Heaven and Earth together within themselves in the raising of their consciousness.

“The Pyramid is a simulacrum of both the mound of primeval earth and the weightless rays of sunlight, a union of heaven and earth that glorifies and transforms the divine king and ensures the divine rule of the Egyptian household.   (Lehner, p.35)

Not in death, but in life this transformation can be accomplished.  Even the Edgar Cayce incarnation in ancient Egypt provides information as the high priest “Ra-Ta”.  Ra, in ancient Egyptian represents the sun and heavens and Ta presenting land or earth, and bringing them together in one.



(For the reason why the length of 27 1/2inches was chosen and its significance in such initiations see; Venture Inward Oct/Nov/Dec 2011 The Cayce Cubit and the Kundalini – Correlations between cultures.)

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